Erlenbach im Simmental is a municipality in the district of Niedersimmental in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It is first mentioned in 1180-81 as Arlunbach. The oldest trace of humans in the area is the Paleolithic Chilchlihöhle cave. Neolithic Neolithic remains have been discovered at Branteschopf Schwynbalm. Other prehistoric traces include the Bronze Age and Roman era artifacts at Balzenberg and Unterklusi and a horde of Roman coins at Stockhorn. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region remained inhabited. The earthen fortification at Chastel probably dates to the Middle Ages. By the High Middle Ages there were at least three castles or forts in the modern municipality, though only ruins remain.